Translation to Yoruba and Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Neck Disability Index with Cognitive Testing in Patients with Neck Pain

  • Temitope Folasade Sokunbi HAVANA SPECIALIST HOSPITAL
  • Udoka A.C. Okafor
  • Olajide A Olawale
  • Adegoke M Akinfeleye
  • D Lomas
Keywords: Neck Disability Index, Face Validity, Content Validity, Cognitive Debriefing Approach, Yoruba Language



Background: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of an instrument is considered important especially if the target population differs from the initial population for which the instrument was originally devised. Most functional scales and measures have yet to be adapted for use with a Yoruba population.

Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Neck Disability Index (NDI) to Yoruba Language and validate using Cognitive Debriefing Approach with patients.

Methods: The NDI was translated to the Yoruba language and cross-culturally adapted for this target population following the Beaton et al protocol. The Yoruba version of the NDI at its pre-final stage further underwent modification after Cognitive Interviews involving six (6) patients of varying ages and occupations with neck pain to determine its face and content validity.

Results: The patients demonstrated adequate understanding of the Yoruba version of the NDI when cognitively assessed using concurrent and recurrent approaches, discrepancies were modified at every stage. Two out of ten constructs were cross-culturally adapted to suit the target population with modifications made to maintain the scales conceptual meaning.

Conclusion: Cognitive testing proved useful in the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the NDI to its Yoruba version with patients demonstrating adequate understanding. The author recommends further psychometric testing to be carried out to further establish validity and reliability of the Yoruba version of the NDI.

Author Biography




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How to Cite
Sokunbi, T. F., Okafor, U. A., Olawale, O. A., Akinfeleye, A. M., & Lomas, D. (2013). Translation to Yoruba and Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Neck Disability Index with Cognitive Testing in Patients with Neck Pain. Nigerian Journal of Medical Rehabilitation, 16(1).
Research Articles